Que: Explain different types of production systems with appropriate examples.
Types of production systems are as follows:
An Intermittent System:
In this system, the goods are manufactured specially to fulfill orders made by customers rather than for stock.
Intermittent production systems are those where the production facilities are flexible enough to handle a wide variety of products and sizes.
Features of an Intermittent System:
- Demand can be discontinuous.
- All operational stages may not be balanced.
- Elaborate sequencing and scheduling is required.
- Needs high investment.
- Planning, routing and scheduling changes with fyesh orders. Storage is necessary at each stagè of production prócess.
- Can adjust to new situation and specification.
- Inspection is not in line with production.
Types of Intermittent System:
There are two types of intermittent systems:
a. Job Production or Project Type Production: In this system, the goods are produced to definite customer’s orders.
Example: Shipbuilding, dam construction, bridge building, book printing, etc.
b. Batch Production: The items are processed in lots or batches, unlike a job type system where one item is produced during each production run.
Example: Biscuit and confectionery and motor manufacturing, medicines, tinned food and hardware like nuts and bolts, etc.
In this system, the items are produced for the stocks and not for specific orders.
Here the inputs are standardized and a standard set of processes and sequence of processes can be adopted. In a continuous manufacturing system, each production run manufactures in a large lot.
Features of Continuous Systems:
- There must be continuity of demand.
- The product must be standardized.
- Material should be as per the specifications and delivered in time
- All operational stages in the process must be balanced.
- Work must conform to quality standards.
- Appropriate plant and equipment must be provided.
- Maintenance must be by anticipation and not by default.
- Inspection must be in line with production.
Types of Continuous System:
There are two types of continuous systems:
Mass Production: Here items are produced in large quantities and much emphasis is not given to consumers’ orders. Uniform and uninterrupted flow of material are maintained through a predetermined sequence of operations.
Example: Newspapers and magazines etc.
Process Production: This system is analogous to a mass-production system with more stress on automation in the production process. The volume of production is very high.
Example: Process manufacturing goods include food, beverages, refined oil, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and plastics, etc.