1. In many problems the path to goal is irrelevant, this class of problems can be solved using ____________
a) Informed Search Techniques
b) Uninformed Search Techniques
c) Local Search Techniques
d) Informed & Uninformed Search Techniques
Explanation: If the path to the goal does not matter, we might consider a different class of algorithms, ones that do not worry about paths at all. Local search algorithms operate using a single current state (rather than multiple paths) and generally move only to neighbors of that state.
2. Though local search algorithms are not systematic, key advantages would include __________
a) Less memory
b) More time
c) Finds a solution in large infinite space
d) Less memory & Finds a solution in large infinite space
Explanation: Two advantages: (1) they use very little memory-usually a constant amount; and (2) they can often find reasonable solutions in large or infinite (continuous) state spaces for which systematic algorithms are unsuitable.
3. A complete, local search algorithm always finds goal if one exists, an optimal algorithm always finds a global minimum/maximum.
Explanation: An algorithm is complete if it finds a solution if exists and optimal if finds optimal goal (minimum or maximum).
4. _______________ Is an algorithm, a loop that continually moves in the direction of increasing value – that is uphill.
a) Up-Hill Search
c) Hill algorithm
d) Reverse-Down-Hill search
Explanation: Refer the definition of Hill-Climbing approach.
5. When will Hill-Climbing algorithm terminate?
a) Stopping criterion met
b) Global Min/Max is achieved
c) No neighbor has higher value
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: When no neighbor is having higher value, algorithm terminates fetching local min/max.
6. What are the main cons of hill-climbing search?
a) Terminates at local optimum & Does not find optimum solution
b) Terminates at global optimum & Does not find optimum solution
c) Does not find optimum solution & Fail to find a solution
d) Fail to find a solution
Explanation: Algorithm terminates at local optimum values, hence fails to find optimum solution.
7. Stochastic hill climbing chooses at random from among the uphill moves; the probability of selection can vary with the steepness of the uphil1 move.
Explanation: Refer to the definition of variants of hill-climbing search.
8. Hill climbing sometimes called ____________ because it grabs a good neighbor state without thinking ahead about where to go next.
a) Needy local search
b) Heuristic local search
c) Greedy local search
d) Optimal local search
9. Hill-Climbing approach stuck for which of the following reasons?
a) Local maxima
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: Local maxima: a local maximum is a peak that is higher than each of its neighboring states, but lower than the global maximum. Ridges: Ridges result in a sequence of local maxima that is very difficult for greedy algorithms to navigate. Plateaux: a plateau is an area of the state space landscape where the evaluation function is flat.
10. ___________ algorithm keeps track of k states rather than just one.
a) Hill-Climbing search
b) Local Beam search
c) Stochastic hill-climbing search
d) Random restart hill-climbing search
Explanation: Refer to the definition of Local Beam Search algorithm.
11. A genetic algorithm (or GA) is a variant of stochastic beam search in which successor states are generated by combining two parent states, rather than by modifying a single state.
Explanation: Stochastic beam search, analogous to stochastic hill climbing, helps to alleviate this problem. Instead of choosing the best k from the pool of candidate successors, stochastic beam search chooses k successors at random, with the probability of choosing a given successor being an increasing function of its value.
12. What are the two main features of Genetic Algorithm?
a) Fitness function & Crossover techniques
b) Crossover techniques & Random mutation
c) Individuals among the population & Random mutation
d) Random mutation & Fitness function
Explanation: Fitness function helps choosing individuals from the population and Crossover techniques defines the offspring generated.
13. Searching using query on Internet is, use of ___________ type of agent.
a) Offline agent
b) Online agent
c) Both Offline & Online agent
d) Goal Based & Online agent
Explanation: Refer to the definitions of both the type of agent.