MCQ-Backward Chaining-AI

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Backward Chaining

1. Which algorithm will work backward from the goal to solve a problem?
a) Forward chaining
b) Backward chaining
c) Hill-climb algorithm
d) None of the mentioned
View Answer
Answer: b
Explanation: Backward chaining algorithm will work backward from the goal and it will chain the known facts that support the proof.

 

2. Which is mainly used for automated reasoning?
a) Backward chaining
b) Forward chaining
c) Logic programming
d) Parallel programming
View Answer
Answer: c
Explanation: Logic programming is mainly used to check the working process of the system.

3. What will backward chaining algorithm will return?
a) Additional statements
b) Substitutes matching the query
c) Logical statement
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer
Answer: b
Explanation: It will contains the list of goals containing a single element and returns the set of all substitutions satisfying the query.

4. How can be the goal is thought of in backward chaining algorithm?
a) Queue
b) List
c) Vector
d) Stack
View Answer
Answer: d
Explanation: The goals can be thought of as stack and if all of them us satisfied means, then current branch of proof succeeds.

5. What is used in backward chaining algorithm?
a) Conjuncts
b) Substitution
c) Composition of substitution
d) None of the mentioned
View Answer
Answer: c
Explanation: None.

6. Which algorithm are in more similar to backward chaining algorithm?
a) Depth-first search algorithm
b) Breadth-first search algorithm
c) Hill-climbing search algorithm
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer
Answer: a
Explanation: It is depth-first search algorithm because its space requirements are linear in the size of the proof.

7. Which problem can frequently occur in backward chaining algorithm?
a) Repeated states
b) Incompleteness
c) Complexity
d) Both Repeated states & Incompleteness
View Answer
Answer: d
Explanation: If there is any loop in the chain means, It will lead to incompleteness and repeated states.

8. How the logic programming can be constructed?
a) Variables
b) Expressing knowledge in a formal language
c) Graph
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer
Answer: b
Explanation: Logic programming can be constructed by expressing knowledge in a formal expression and the problem can be solved by running inference process.

9. What form of negation does the prolog allows?
a) Negation as failure
b) Proposition
c) Substitution
d) Negation as success
View Answer
Answer: a
Explanation: None.

10. Which is omitted in prolog unification algorithm?
a) Variable check
b) Occur check
c) Proposition check
d) Both Occur & Proposition check
View Answer
Answer: b
Explanation: Occur check is omitted in prolog unification algorithm because of unsound inferences.